Zirconium Dioxide Immediate Dental Implants White Crystalline Oxide
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ), also known as zirconia (not to be
confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
Its most naturally occurring form, with a monoclinic crystalline
structure, is the mineral baddeleyite.
Baddeleyite is a rare zirconium oxide mineral (ZrO 2 or zirconia),
occurring in a variety of monoclinic prismatic crystal forms. It is
transparent to translucent,
has high indices of refraction, and ranges from color-less to
yellow, green, and dark brown.
Baddeleyite is a refractory mineral, with a melting point of
Advances in biomaterial science and ceramic manufacturing
technology have allowed the production of high strength and
biocompatible zirconia that can be
used in biomedical devices and implant abutments.
The introduction of yettria partially stabilized tetragonal
zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP), powder injection molding (PIM), and
hot isostatic pressing (HIP) tech-niques were the hallmarks of this
Otherdevelopments such as the use of zirconia-toughened alumina and
ceria-doped zirconia to minimize the incidence and halt the
progression of zirconia aging are also considered as key steps in
the growing popularity of zirconia as a bioceramic.
Abutment materials and soft tissue response
|Zirconia||Comparable ability to form a peri-implant seal to that of machined
or polished titanium||Most hygienic abutment on the market allowing improved long-term
maintenance of the peri-implant seal|
Because of its material properties and strength, zirconia is
utilized whenever esthetic considerations are important and high
loads are expected (e.g. esthetic zone cases, posterior fixed
prosthesis frameworks, implant abutments, and multi-unit implant
Zirconia has a high bending strength and fracture toughness, and a
Young’s modulus comparable to that of steel. In addition to its
strength, the greatest advantage of ZrO 2 is its excellent tissue
Various studies have demonstrated the successful application of
zirconia abutments in terms of stability of soft tissue and
marginal bone. Results indicate that the type of material used
affects both the amount and quality of the surrounding tissues
(when comparing zirconia with cast gold alloys).
Also, ziconia abutments minimize bacterial and plaque adhesion and
soft tissue inflammation.